Lount and the riflemen marched to find the rebels who fled and found Mackenzie trying to convince the rebels to continue their path towards Toronto. In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath. Only two of the original rebels, Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were executed by the Fourteen-year-old Adam Wheeler arrives in Toronto in the autumn of 1837 with his uncle’s family. The Upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and replaced with Sir George Arthur who arrived in Toronto in March 1838. The more extreme elements in the Reform movement then began to mobilize under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie. In, M.S. [61] The armed forces were split into two companies and went to fields on both sides of Yonge Street. Tundra Rob. In recounting the “myths of responsible government”, Romney emphasized that after the ascendancy of Loyalism as the dominant political ideology of Upper Canada any demand for democracy or for responsible government became a challenge to colonial sovereignty. [53] The rebels believed there were several battalions of troops firing upon them and several ran away. Rolph and Baldwin relayed the rejection to the rebels, and Rolph told Mackenzie that they should attack as soon as possible because the city was poorly defended. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. They controlled the system of patronagethroughout the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. They focused on the campaign for responsible government and were thus prepared to unite the two Canadas. Scholars for Upper Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea that the rebellion was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution. He left Hamilton, Ontario on December 12 and arrived in Brantford on December 13. [44] Another horseman saw the rebel's march into Toronto and notified Fitzgibbon, who tried unsuccessfully to have officials take action. William Lyon Mackenzie was a fiery and vocal critic of the Upper Canadian system in the 1820's and 30's. [24], The Upper Canada legislature refused to pass a supply bill in 1836 after Bond Head refused to implement responsible government reforms. In pursuit of this democratic goal, the Chartists eventually staged a similar armed rebellion, the Newport Rising, in Wales in 1839. [71] Van Egmond died of an illness he acquired while imprisoned[72] while Lount and Peter Matthews were sentenced to the gallows for leading the rebellion. [62] Bond Head ordered the tavern to be burned down and the rebels arrested. [11] The Reformers won a majority in the elections held in 1834 for the Legislative Assembly of the 12th Parliament of Upper Canada but the Family Compact held the majority in the Legislative Council. The impact did not happen immediately as intended though. [26] Farmers organised target practice sessions and forges in the Home District and Simcoe County created weapons for the rebellion. The large number of migrants led American legislators to speculate that bringing Upper Canada into the American fold would be a "mere matter of marching". [33], In November 1837, in the lead-up to the Political Union's Constitutional Convention, Mackenzie published a satire in the Constitution, a round table discussion by John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and William Pitt and others. Struggling to avoid the charge of sedition, reformers later purposefully obscured their true aims of independence from Britain and focused on their grievances against the Family Compact. Likewise everything coming into Upper Canada from Britain — including a great many immigrants — did so by sailing up the St. Lawrence first. for service during the rebellions. The news of chaos in Lower Canada reached the people of Upper Canada in October of 1837. The more recent trend is to dismiss the rebellions as unnecessary. However, he succeeded in helping to cause the rebellion. more moderate lines. Reform movement. Although initially believing the government's position was untenable he was inspired by a company of men that formed to defend the government. The lower Canadian rebels would have their crops and fields burned. [73] Other rebels were also sentenced to hang and ninety-two men were sent to Van Diemen's Land. The Upper Canada Rebellion was against the government of British colony of Upper Canada in December 1837. It also carried significant amounts of cash and munitions. [35] Mackenzie also printed handbills declaring independence which were distributed to citizens north of Toronto. Sir Francis Bond Head and the rash behaviour of William Lyon Mackenzie. Thus, responsible government became a "pragmatic" policy of alleviating local abuses, rather than a revolutionary anti-colonial moment. As part of this satire, he published a draft republican constitution for the State of Upper Canada that closely resembled the objectives in the constitution of the Canadian Alliance Society in 1834. It recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony. After the first rebellion in 1837, normal civil rights were suspended by the application of martial law and Lord Durham was named Governor of all British North America. Any answers will help, thnx If the farmer refused to come to court in Toronto, they would automatically forfeit the case and their property subjected to a sheriff's sale. Governor, ... which had been concentrated in Lower Canada to deal with the crisis. The meeting created the Committee of Vigilance and signed a declaration urging every community to send delegates to a congress in Toronto and discuss remedies for their concerns. [44] Mackenzie took both men prisoner but did not search them for weapons as they gave their word that they did not have any. [77], William Kilbourn stated that the removal of Radicals from Upper Canada politics, either through execution or their retreat to the United States, allowed the Clear Grits to be formed as a more moderate political force that had fewer disagreements with the Tories than the reformers. He was a fierce critic of the Family Compact and the government's refusal to give political rights to American settlers. [50] Instead, Mackenzie spent the day burning down the house of Bank of Upper Canada official and questioning the loyalty of his troops. The Early American Republic and the 1837–38 Canadian Rebellions. 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